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Teacher-centered instruction, or a one-way teaching style, has been regarded as one of the causes of decline in university students' academic ability in Japan. Even if faculty members have excellent research achievements, they have not necessarily undergone pedagogical training. Additionally, some professors are not familiar with introducing interactive-style lessons into their courses. This is partly because universities do not require a teaching certificate or teaching skills for recruitingdoi:10.34428/00012392 fatcat:hwcuevkqg5evbhewyl63ssceeq