Early Identification of Patients with Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the Emergency Department using Electronic Health Record Phenotyping
Guidelines recommend risk stratification scores in patients presenting with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB), but such scores are uncommonly employed in practice. Automation and deployment of risk stratification scores in real time within electronic health records (EHRs) would overcome a major impediment. This requires an automated mechanism to accurately identify (phenotype) patients with GIB at the time of presentation. Aims: To identify patients with acute GIB by developing and evaluating
... and evaluating EHR-based phenotyping algorithms for emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: We specified criteria using structured data elements to create rules for identifying patients, and also developed a natural-language-processing (NLP)-based algorithm for automated phenotyping of patients , tested them with tenfold cross-validation (n=7144) and external validation (n=2988), and compared them with the standard method for encoding patient conditions in the EHR, Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine (SNOMED). The gold standard for GIB diagnosis was independent dual manual review of medical records. The primary outcome was positive predictive value (PPV). Results: A decision rule using GIB-specific terms from ED triage and from ED review-of-systems assessment performed better than SNOMED on internal validation (PPV=91% [90%-93%] vs. 74% [71%-76%], P<0.001) and external validation (PPV=85% [84%-87%] vs. 69% [67%-71%], P<0.001). The NLP algorithm (external validation PPV=80% [79-82%]) was not superior to the structured-datafield decision rule. Conclusions: An automated decision rule employing GIB-specific triage and review-of-systems terms can be used to trigger EHR-based deployment of risk stratification models to guide clinical decision-making in real time for patients with acute GIB presenting to the ED.