Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Flavonoids from Kiwi Peel: Process Optimization and Bioactivity Assessment

Miguel Giordano, José Pinela, Maria Inês Dias, Ricardo C. Calhelha, Dejan Stojković, Marina Soković, Débora Tavares, Analía Laura Cánepa, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, Cristina Caleja, Lillian Barros
2021 Applied Sciences  
The nutritional quality of kiwifruit has been highlighted by several studies, while its peel is typically discarded as a by-product with no commercial value. This study was carried out to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of phenolic compounds from kiwi peel. Three independent variables (time (t), ultrasonic power (P) and ethanol concentration (EtOH)) were combined in a five-level central composite rotatable design coupled with the response surface methodology (RSM). The
more » ... on yield determined gravimetrically and the content of phenolic compounds identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn (namely two quercetin glycosides, one catechin isomer and one B-type (epi)catechin dimer) were the experimental responses used in the optimization. The polynomial models were successfully fitted to the experimental data and used to determine the optimal UAE conditions. The sonication of the sample at 94.4 W for 14.8 min, using 68.4% ethanol, resulted in a maximum of 1.51 ± 0.04 mg of flavonoids per g of extract, a result that allowed the experimental validation of the predictive model. The kiwi peel extract obtained under optimized conditions showed somehow promising bioactive properties, including antioxidant and antimicrobial effects, and no toxicity to Vero cells. Overall, this study contributes to the valorization of kiwi peel as a low-cost raw material for the development of natural ingredients (such as food preservatives) and also to the resource-use efficiency and circular bioeconomy.
doi:10.3390/app11146416 fatcat:z2ttwiezzbdjxevnndecfl4tbm