Fertility of crustal rocks during anatexis [chapter]

Alan Bruce Thompson
1996 Special Paper 315: The Third Hutton Symposium on the Origin of Granites and Related Rocks  
After many years of systematic experimental investigations, it is now possible to quantify the conditions for optimum fertility to melt production of most common crustal rock types as functions of temperature and a HlO , to about 30 kbar pressure. Quartzo-feldspathic melting produces steady increases in melt proportion with increasing temperature. The exact melt fraction depends on the mineral mode relative to quartz-feldspar eutectics and the temperatures of mica dehydration melting reactions.
more » ... Mica melting consumes SiO 2 from residual quartz during the formation of refractory Al,SiO 5 , orthopyroxene, garnet or cordierite. A simple graphical interpretation of experimental results allows a deduction of the proportions of mica and feldspar leading to optimum fertility. In effect, the mica dehydration melting reactions, at specific pressure and a HiO , are superimposed on quartz-feldspar melting relations projected onto Ab-An-Or. Fertility to melt production varies with the mica to feldspar ratio and pressure. Pelites are more fertile than psammites at low pressures (e.g. 5 kbar), especially if they contain An 40 to An 50 plagioclase. At higher pressure (e.g. 10-20 kbar) and for rocks containing albitic plagioclase, psammites are more fertile than pelites. For a typical pelite (e.g. with An 25 at 20 kbar), the cotectic with muscovite lies at higher a H2O (*0-6) and X Ab (*0-42) than with biotite (a H , o :*0-35; X Ab *O-32), thus dehydration melting of muscovite requires 10% more plagioclase for fertility than does biotite. The first melts from dehydration melting of muscovite (with Plg + Qtz) are more sodic and form at lower temperatures than the first melts from Bio + Plg + Qtz. With increasing pressure, to at least 30 kbar, granite minimum and mica dehydration melts become more sodic. This indicates that fl H 2 o °f such melts is greater than 0-3.
doi:10.1130/0-8137-2315-9.1 fatcat:tyldue74c5c55h4b2juzwx2mei