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The evolution of overseas Chinese social organization in the nineteenth century western Malay states
An attempt is made to demonstrate that locally-based Chinese communities as such did not take shape at the point of settlement in the western Malay States during the early half of the nineteenth century. Rather, they evolved end eventually emerged through a slow process of change, the effects of which may be found mirrored in the fluctuating fortunes of the initially all-powerful and all-encompassing secret societies. With growing length of settlement and expansion, differentiation took placedoi:10.14288/1.0099960 fatcat:xmyqpvvjqnh2livkoll7p2bmpa