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Networks describe how parts associate with each other to form integrated systems which often have modular and hierarchical structure. In biology, network growth involves two processes, one that unifies and the other that diversifies. Here, we propose a biphasic (bow-tie) theory of module emergence. In the first phase, parts are at first weakly linked and associate variously. As they diversify, they compete with each other and are often selected for performance. The emerging interactionsdoi:10.1177/1176934319872980 pmid:31523127 pmcid:PMC6728656 fatcat:pundw72czjfwhc6gv2wnxktdvq