Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates and Construction of a Beijing Lineage Reference Genome
Genome Biology and Evolution
Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, kills over 1 million people worldwide annually. Development of drug resistance (DR) in the pathogen is a major challenge for TB control. We conducted whole-genome analysis of seven Taiwan M. tuberculosis isolates: One drug susceptible (DS) and five DR Beijing lineage isolates and one DR Euro-American lineage isolate. Developing a new method for DR mutation identification and applying it to the next-generation
... ng (NGS) data from the 6 Beijing lineage isolates, we identified 13 known and 6 candidate DR mutations and provided experimental support for 4 of them. We assembled the genomes of one DS and two DR Beijing lineage isolates and the Euro-American lineage isolate using NGS data. Moreover, using both PacBio and NGS sequencing data, we obtained a high-quality assembly of an extensive DR Beijing lineage isolate. Comparative analysis of these five newly assembled genomes and two published complete genomes revealed a large number of genetic changes, including gene gains and losses, indels and translocations, suggesting rapid evolution of M. tuberculosis. We found the MazEF toxin-antitoxin system in all the seven isolates studied and several interesting mutations in MazEF proteins. Finally, we used the four assembled Beijing lineage genomes to construct a high-quality Beijing lineage reference genome that is DS and contains all the genes in the four genomes. It contains 212 genes not found in the standard reference H37Rv, which is Euro-American. It is therefore a better reference than H37Rv for the Beijing lineage, the predominant lineage in Asia.