Description of New American Carduelis/Spinus Bird Species in La Paz (Bolivia): C./S. lapazensis
The Open Ornithology Journal
South American siskins (Genus Carduelis/Spinus) are the outcome of regional evolutionary radiation from an extant (or other extinct) species: C. notata, a North America siskin, which thrives in Mexico subtropical areas and is parental of one of the three described North American siskin radiations. Methods: Speciation and/or subspeciation of this South American siskin radiation have probably occurred during Pleistocene Epoch. In the present paper, a new species/subspecies akin to C./S. atrata is
... to C./S. atrata is described by genetic and phenotypic parameters: this new species/subspecies was previously considered a subspecies of C./S. xanthogastra, which thrives further North and is separated about 1,762 km, 1,094 miles, from this described subspecies, Carduelis/ Spinus xanthogastra stejnegeri. Results: Our genetic study using mt cyt b, phenotypic and behavior observations show that this putative C./S. xanthogastra subspecies is either a different species or a C./S. atrata subspecies; we have proposed a provisional name for this finch, C./S. lapazensis, instead of C./S. x. stejnegeri. Conclusion: Species definition is movable and controversial, and it is uncertain in South American siskins, which all show a close genetic and phenotypical relationship, which may be still immersed in speciation processes since Pleistocene Epoch.