Outcomes of Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Patients with Diabetic Macular Edema at a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Tanzania

Shariza Kanji, Kazim Dhalla, William Makupa
2020 Ophthalmology Research An International Journal  
Diabetic macular edema is a type of diabetic maculopathy affecting the central vision, ranging from mild blur to blindness. Laser photocoagulation has been the mainstay of treatment for the past three decades but it has a limited role in improving the central vision. Recent introduction of anti-vascular endothelial growth factors appears to be promising in restoring vision. However, due to its short half life multiple injections are required to control edema and maintain vision. Objectives: To
more » ... etermine the visual and anatomical outcomes of intravitreal bevacizumab in patients with diabetic macular edema. Methods: A hospital based retrospective cross-sectional study was done at Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center eye department from 2011- 2015. During this time, patients with diabetic macular edema who were given intravitreal bevacizumab and satisfied the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Visual acuity, central macular thickness and macular volume were recorded at baseline, six, twelve, eighteen, twenty four and thirty weeks respectively. Optical coherence tomography was used to record central macular thickness and macular volume. Univariate and multivariate binary regression analysis were done and the p-value, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. Results: The prevalence of Diabetic macular edema was 15.4%. Mean baseline visual acuity improved from 0.9 ± 0.57 log MAR (6/48) to 0.6±0.49 log MAR (6/24) (95% CI 0.207 - 0.389) at 30 weeks. The mean baseline central macular thickness decreased from 426.97 ± 148.358 μm to 280.98 ± 95.89 μm at 30 weeks (95% 151.531 - 187.044, P < .001). The mean baseline macular volume decreased significantly from 10.59 ± 2.55 mm3 to 8.38 ± 1.498 mm3 (95% CI 1.860 - 2.886) at 30 weeks. In multivariate analysis, patients with no hypertension were more likely to have a better visual outcome of 6/18 or better (95% CI 1.064 - 4.420, P < .033). Conclusion: This study shows a high burden of diabetic macular edema in our setting. Intravitreal bevacizumab injection results in better visual and anatomical outcomes.
doi:10.9734/or/2020/v12i430153 fatcat:ff6q2d4eqnford2kzjcdssbila