Ricean $K$-Factors in Narrow-Band Fixed Wireless Channels: Theory, Experiments, and Statistical Models

L.J. Greenstein, S.S. Ghassemzadeh, V. Erceg, D.G. Michelson
2009 IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology  
Fixed wireless channels in suburban macrocells are subject to fading due to scattering by moving objects such as windblown trees and foliage in the environment. When, as is often the case, the fading follows a Ricean distribution, the first-order statistics of fading are completely described by the corresponding average path gain and Ricean K-factor. Because such fading has important implications for the design of both narrow-band and wideband multipoint communication systems that are deployed
more » ... n such environments, it must be well characterized. We conducted a set of 1.9-GHz experiments in suburban macrocell environments to generate a collective database from which we could construct a simple model for the probability distribution of K as experienced by fixed wireless users. Specifically, we find K to be lognormal, with the median being a simple function of season, antenna height, antenna beamwidth, and distance and with a standard deviation of 8 dB. We also present plausible physical arguments to explain these observations, elaborate on the variability of K with time, frequency, and location, and show the strong influence of wind conditions on K.
doi:10.1109/tvt.2009.2018549 fatcat:6whtctvhunb4hjq2c4l3gzozmi