Functional Analysis of the C2A Domain of Synaptotagmin 1: Implications for Calcium-Regulated Secretion
Journal of Neuroscience
Synaptotagmin 1 is proposed to function as a low affinity calcium sensor for calcium-triggered exocytosis from neural and neuroendocrine cells. Because of the calcium-binding properties of the C2A domain of synaptotagmin 1, calciumdependent interactions through this domain may modulate neurotransmitter release. We addressed this question by using alanine-scanning mutagenesis to generate a series of mutations within the C2A domain of synaptotagmin 1. The effects of these mutations on
... n 1 C2A function were analyzed for (1) calcium-dependent phospholipid binding, (2) calcium-dependent binding to syntaxin 1A, a plasma membrane protein critical for vesicle docking or fusion, and (3) calcium-regulated secretion after microinjection into neuroendocrine pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Our analyses reveal that a polylysine motif at residues 189-192 confers an inhibitory effect on secretion by recombinant synaptotagmin C2A fragments. The synaptotagmin 1 C2A polylysine motif functions independently of calcium-mediated interactions with phospholipids and syntaxin 1A. Furthermore, ␣-latrotoxin reverses the inhibitory effect of injected recombinant C2A fragments, suggesting that they perturb the cellular calcium-sensing machinery by interfering with synaptotagmin 1 activity in vivo. Our results indicate that novel calcium-independent interactions mediated through the C2A polylysine motif of synaptotagmin 1 function to modulate neurotransmitter release.