Graphene-Based RFID Tag Antenna for Vehicular Smart Border Passings
Prach Asavanarakul, Amnoiy Ruengwaree, Suwat Sakulchat
Computers Materials & Continua
Globalization has opened practically every country in the globe to tourism and commerce today. In every region, the volume of vehicles traveling through border crossings has increased significantly. Smartcards and radio frequency identification (RFID) have been proposed as a new method of identifying and authenticating passengers, products, and vehicles. However, the usage of smartcards and RFID tag cards for vehicular border crossings continues to suffer security and flexibility challenges.
... viding a vehicle's driver a smartcard or RFID tag card may result in theft, loss, counterfeit, imitation, or vehicle transmutation. RFID sticker tags would replace RFID tags as vehicle border passes to solve the mentioned problem. The RFID sticker tag adheres to the windscreen, side screen, dash, hood, or door of the vehicle, or any other acceptable location. Any damage or stripping from the installed location may cause data corruption and cannot be reused. Overall, these sticker tags will make the border crossings more secure and efficient. This article focuses on designing a rectangular-shaped RFID sticker tag antenna made of graphene sheets as a possible solution for smart border crossings. The proposed antenna is mathematically designed and analyzed with CST software to determine the optimum parameters. The design parameters are then used to create an antenna on a prepared graphene sheet. The performance results are carried out with CST software and a network analyzer. The designed RFID antenna stick on a car windscreen offers approximately 900 MHz bandwidth over the frequency range from 1.8 GHz to 2.7 GHz with an average gain of 1.23 dBi at the frequency to be used of 2.4 GHz microwave RFID band. The radiation is an omnidirectional pattern. The proposed graphene-sheet rectangular-shape monopole antenna is compact, low-cost, and bendable to fit into the windscreen of a car while retaining excellent wave propagation capabilities. These findings illustrate the suggested antenna's potential as an RFID tag antenna in a vehicular smart border pass system.