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Effective Tumor Cell Death by σ-2 Receptor Ligand Siramesine Involves Lysosomal Leakage and Oxidative Stress
Acquired resistance to classic caspase-mediated apoptosis is a common problem for the treatment of human cancer. Here, we show that siramesine, a novel S-2 receptor ligand, effectively induces caspase-independent programmed cell death in immortalized and transformed cells of various origins. Siramesine-treated tumor cells displayed increased levels of reactive oxygen species, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, chromatin condensation, and shrinkage and detachment of cells. Lipid antioxidantsdoi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-05-0269 pmid:16204071 fatcat:nmwzoas2jveopnjk7r7leswoqm