Enhancement of Phytosterol and Triterpenoid Production in Plant Hairy Root Cultures—Simultaneous Stimulation or Competition?

Agata Rogowska, Anna Szakiel
2021 Plants  
Plant in vitro cultures, including hairy roots, can be applied for controlled production of valuable natural products, such as triterpenoids and sterols. These compounds originate from the common precursor squalene. Sterols and triterpenoids distinctly differ in their functions, and the 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclization step is often regarded as a branch point between primary and secondary (more aptly: general and specialized) metabolism. Considering the crucial role of phytosterols as membrane
more » ... tituents, it has been postulated that unconstrained biosynthesis of triterpenoids can occur when sterol formation is already satisfied, and these compounds are no longer needed for cell growth and division. This hypothesis seems to follow directly the growth-defense trade-off plant dilemma. In this review, we present some examples illustrating the specific interplay between the two divergent pathways for sterol and triterpenoid biosynthesis appearing in root cultures. These studies were significant for revealing the steps of the biosynthetic pathway, understanding the role of particular enzymes, and discovering the possibility of gene regulation. Currently, hairy roots of many plant species can be considered not only as an efficient tool for production of phytochemicals, but also as suitable experimental models for investigations on regulatory mechanisms of plant metabolism.
doi:10.3390/plants10102028 pmid:34685836 fatcat:mbbncuthqvewnb6u6thi5mplom