U.S. China Policy: Conciliation or " Collision Course"?

B. Nelson
1966 Science  
fiscal 1966, and the prospect is that future appropriations for that purpose will mount steadily (OE's current request is for $145 million). Grants under this program can be used for educational parks and other innovations designed to bring about racial integration and improved methods of instruction (although it now appears that the legislation authorizing continuance of the program will state that, in reviewing proposals for approval, special consideration is not to be given the promotion of
more » ... n the promotion of integration). It is in part because this well-financed program exists that school administrators are listening to Howe with more than just academic interest. The evolution of OE from a weak, relatively unimportant agency to a strong one of the first rank occurred largely during the tenure of Howe's predecessor, Francis Keppel, the commissioner from late 1962 to early 1966. Keppel, who recently left HEW after a short stint as Assistant Secretary for Education and is now with General Learning Corporation, undoubtedly would not have escaped criticism had he remained commissioner. Keppel was spared a violently angry reaction from the southerners principally because the desegregation guidelines which he issued last year were comparatively lenient. They drew heavy fire from civil rights spokesmen, especially Adam Clayton Powell, the Harlem congressman who chairs the House Education and Labor Committee. Keppel could not have avoided issuing more demanding guidelines this year. But some of Keppel's former associates believe he would -not have made the controversial speeches Howe has made. They observe that Keppel was too sensitive politicially to have spoken out so. And, in their view, he was less inclined than Howe to feel that the commissioner should pioneer new ideas, although this observation would surprise Keppel. Many people, conscious of the absence of any commonly observed standards in U.S. public education, look with favor on OE's new assertiveness and leadership. As a pioneer of ideas, Howe has by no means confined himself to the subject of racial integration. For example, he has told school teachers frankly that, as a group, they lack fiscal 1966, and the prospect is that future appropriations for that purpose will mount steadily (OE's current request is for $145 million). Grants under this program can be used for educational parks and other innovations designed to bring about racial integration and improved methods of instruction (although it now appears that the legislation authorizing continuance of the program will state that, in reviewing proposals for approval, special consideration is not to be given the promotion of integration). It is in part because this well-financed program exists that school administrators are listening to Howe with more than just academic interest. The evolution of OE from a weak, relatively unimportant agency to a strong one of the first rank occurred largely during the tenure of Howe's predecessor, Francis Keppel, the commissioner from late 1962 to early 1966. Keppel, who recently left HEW after a short stint as Assistant Secretary for Education and is now with General Learning Corporation, undoubtedly would not have escaped criticism had he remained commissioner. Keppel was spared a violently angry reaction from the southerners principally because the desegregation guidelines which he issued last year were comparatively lenient. They drew heavy fire from civil rights spokesmen, especially Adam Clayton Powell, the Harlem congressman who chairs the House Education and Labor Committee. Keppel could not have avoided issuing more demanding guidelines this year. But some of Keppel's former associates believe he would -not have made the controversial speeches Howe has made. They observe that Keppel was too sensitive politicially to have spoken out so. And, in their view, he was less inclined than Howe to feel that the commissioner should pioneer new ideas, although this observation would surprise Keppel. Many people, conscious of the absence of any commonly observed standards in U.S. public education, look with favor on OE's new assertiveness and leadership. As a pioneer of ideas, Howe has by no means confined himself to the subject of racial integration. For example, he has told school teachers frankly that, as a group, they lack the exacting standards and other characteristics of a profession. He said that, in seeking professional standing,
doi:10.1126/science.154.3746.245 pmid:17810302 fatcat:74nx5njv7jeonjdocmzw7rvl5i