Regorafenib induces adaptive resistance of colorectal cancer cells via inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor
Journal of Medical Investigation
Recently, inhibition of tumor angiogenesis has become an important anti-cancer therapy. Tumor angiogenesis is regulated by multiple signaling pathways, including VEGF and VEGF receptor (VEGF-R), FGF and FGF receptor (FGF-R), and PDGF and PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) pathways. Thus, the antiangiogenic agents, such as regorafenib, simultaneously target those receptors on vascular endothelial cells. In addition to endothelial cells, cancer cells express the three receptors, suggesting that the
... enic inhibitors affect tumor cells. In fact, we previously demonstrated that regorafenib directly acted on human colorectal cancer cells and accelerated their apoptosis resistance and migration capability. Thus, we here elucidated how regorafenib induced the malignant phenotypes in colorectal cancer cells. To identify the responsible receptor among the regorafenibtargeting proangiogenic receptors, we examined the effects of a potent selective inhibitor for VEGF-R, FGF-R or PDGF-R on apoptosis resistance and migration capability. We clarified that blockade of VEGF-R, but not FGF-R and PDGF-R, induced the malignant phenotypes. We confirmed that blocking of VEGF ligands derived from colorectal cancer cells also induced the phenotypes. These results suggest that regorafenib progressed the malignancy via prevention of autocrine and paracrine VEGF signaling in colorectal cancer cells.