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The article reviews studies that explain the role of graphical displays in learning and synthesizes relevant findings into principles for effective graphical design. Three theoretical perspectives provide the framework that organizes the review: dual coding theory, visual argument, and conjoint retention. The three theories are compatible although they are based on different assumptions. Research suggests that graphics are effective learning tools only when they allow readers to interpret anddoi:10.1023/a:1016064429161 fatcat:b6nzetp32vavroknyogdciuvru