The Prevalence of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Associated Factors among Adults in Jimma Town, South-West Ethiopia: A Community Based Survey
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is defined as an ankle-brachial index (ABI) ≤ 0.90 in individuals aged 40 years or over. So far, the prevalence of PAD in Ethiopia is not known. We assessed the prevalence of PAD among Ethiopians using ABI and thus evaluated its applicability as a screening tool at the community level. Methods: A cross-sectional community based survey was conducted on 178 sampled individuals aged 40 years and above in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia from June 15 to July 15,
... 15 to July 15, 2011. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intermittent claudication (with Edinburgh Claudication assessment tool) were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured using a mercury sphygmomanometer and a hand held Doppler flow detector at arm and ankle respectively. The ABI was calculated from the ratio of higher ankle systolic blood pressure and the higher of the two brachial systolic pressure measurements. Descriptive statistics and chisquare or Fischer's exact test, were used for data analysis and interpretation. Predictors of PAD were estimated using univariate and multivariate regression models. Results: The overall prevalence of peripheral arterial disease was 10.8%. But, none of the participants with peripheral arterial disease fulfilled the criteria for claudication. The traditional risk factors identified were; hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and current cigarette smoking accounting for 29.5%, 6.8% and 12.5% of participants respectively. Female sex, current smoking and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with increased risk of PAD. Conclusion: Peripheral arterial disease is common among Ethiopians aged 40 years and above. Intermittent claudication was found to be insensitive in the detection of peripheral arterial disease. Female sex, current smoking and diabetes mellitus were predictors of PAD.