A Systematic Account of the Plants collected in New Caledonia and the Isle of Pines by Mr. R. H. Compton, M.A., in 1914.-Part II. Gymnosperms and Cryptogams
Journal of the Linnean Society of London Botany
A 83 stenlatic Account of the Plaiitr collected in Nen C:ilcdoni:i ant1 thn Isle of Pines Ly A h . It. H. (htnptotl, M.A., in 1 9 1 4 . -P~n~ IT. Qyiiiiiosperms and ('ryptog:tiiis. B y Prof. ConwToN and others. (Coinirtutiicatect by Dr. A. B. RENIILE, F.R.S., i3ec.L.S.) (PLATES 26, 27.) [Read 4th hI:irch, 1920.1 GYMNOSPERMS. 9 B y 12. H. COMPTON. THE Cinetales and Ginkgoales :ire absent froin New Cirledonia. TLe Cycatlales are represmteth hy : L single species, which occurs only in tho littoral
... nly in tho littoral zone, and is of wide distribution tliroughout the 1ndo-M;ll:ty region and Polynesia. The Coniferales, on the other liand, :ire developed to :t quite exceptional degree, niernbers of all the sub-f:iii:ilies excel)t t,lie Phyllocladoidere, AhieteE, and TnsodieG being present. Tlie Arancariere iticlude five native species of Aruucaria (6 Eut:tctii) and three of' dgutliis. The Potlocnrpez are re1)i.esentecl by four species ot' Daoytliiinz, eiglit or niiie of PotZoca?y)ccs, :tiid one of d c m o p~/ I e . The range of the Taxez is now extended to Ne ' , Caledonia by the new genus A ustwta;ctis. Tlie Cupressere iiiclucle a Lihoccdrtcs, :L Cal1itr.k (with a variety), and the new genus Callit~opsis. * Tlie flora of the New Hehrides is very iinperfectly known. or esceptious might b j found to this statement. Arrit~cnritc Cdokii, which occurs in the New Llebrides, is not cert;iinly native there. The non-endemic species in CTuillauniin's (I911 1 list are ope11 t o suspicion of error; mid my own collectioii includes nonc but endemic species (s;iVe the planted Arniccaricz Bidiuillii). * 1,INN. JOCRN.-BOl'ANY, VOL. XLV. 2 H 422 PLANTS F R O M N E W CALEDONIA. reinains of an nre:t on which, prior to its iso1;ttion by subsidence, tthe Podocarpere and Araiic:iriez att,ained a great development, and mliich, i n f x t , became an i i n p~r t a n t ~e n t r e for the erolution and distribution of Conifers on their niigration nortli~r:~rds froin the Antarctic Continent. Thc i~elationships of tlie Poclocarpere and Apthis, on the one hand, are with Now Zeal:md; and tliis line of tiiigrntioti is carried on into tlie New Helnitles, New Guinea, Fiji, I\l:ilaya, ant1 India. In A m i ( c ( w i ( z and Callitris, on tlie other hand, me have links with Eastern Australia and Norfolk Islautl. L4u.strotn.xus is the niost soutlierly representative of the Tiixez, whose centre of clist~rihut,ion is further north, and wliicli were probably evolved sulseqriently to tlie nortliward iiiigration OE the Podocarpez. New Caledonia is t.he st:it.ioii of one species of LiOocetlms in its distrihution around the shores of the Pacific Ocean. The S e w C~aledoiiinn Conifers belong to :L number ot' different ecological types, :mcl are foiiiid growing in a great variety of situations. They are, however, developed in tlie p e a t e s t nljnndalice in tlie iiiontane forest on serpentine roclis ahove 3000 fwt :tltitucle, where they are present to such a degrcc that, onc m:iy speak of Conifer forest, tliougli Angiosl)erniic trees mill slirut)s are also present. To this forinatiori belong four Conifitrs of superticiiilly siniilar appe;irance, all being trees with irregular crowns and T:ix~is-like leaves-viz., I)acr*!jdiuni tazoides, Acnrol,yle Punclieri, Podocarpus mitior, and Y . ,fe-;..rrtigitioitles. Here also are found Callitris sulcuta var. ulpitiu, Libocetlrus c~iisti~v-~~iletloiLbca, Podocavpts m t a , Y. gnitlioides var. crr~.s~)itosn, P. loipfoliolatu, :tiid Duoytlium lycopotlioides, while Araiic'trrta Bc~lwisce f o r m :t conupictions feature of. ni:tiiy nioiint:iin sunimits by projrct.ing fiigli above t i~c generiil level of the forest. Generally spealiing, iioiie of t,licse Conifers can be called well-grown trees; their trunks are dwarfell, stonteti, twistetl, and gnarled, and their branches sliow signs of striigple with tlie severe climatic conditions and the competition of epiphytic iiios3es and lichens. The iiiipressioii given is that they have survived 011 the iiilwitsin suuiiiiits, owing to t,lteir qu:tlities of stubborii resistance to iinfavourable conditions ratlier tliaii to any special suitability to those cundi tions. This montane Conifer forrst is evitlently of the same type as that found on the snmtnits in New Guinea, Fiji, Borneo *, etc., tlioiigli mude up of d iffarent floristic elements. It is inipossihle to resist the inipression that these C7onifer-cnpped iiiountain-tops are islands in an Aag.iosperinic sea, originally continuous but now is\.lated by subsidence and by the deep * r h e lower limit of the Conifer for& in Kew Guinea and Borneo is at a considerably higher altitude than io New Cdedoiiia-chis being clearly related to climatic conditions due t u latitude. 11. 1%. COlIPTON : OYJlNVSPEKillS. LIHDSAYA ALUTACEA Mett. Pic la ; in rock-crevices and among sedges by stream-side, scrub men, frequent ; serpentine ; 500 ft. 863. L. CHEIHolDEs Fourn. Mt. Mou ; on ground in moist gully, Niaouli region ; (300 ft. 541. Great confusion exists in the noinenclnture of this and related species. My specimen exactly matches plants at Kew and the British Mucentti collected at Wagap by Vieillard (1540). Now Vieillard 1540 from Mt. Dore was Rlcttenius's type-specimen for the name' L. tierz'osa : but Mettenius's . description of his L. newosa clearly refers to a different plant from mine and from the Wagap specimen. Further, Fournier quotes Balansa 2694 as I,. nercosu along with Vieillard's 1540 from Mt. Dore ; but tho Balansa 2694 which I have seen is not the saine plant as Vicillard 1540 from Wagap. I therefore conclude that Vieillard's two gatherings frnm Wagnp and Mt. Dore were united under one series-number in-error, though I have not been able to see the Mt. Dore speciinens. Fournier's L. cheiroides seems to have been identical with my plant, and this opinion is shared by Rosenstock (Fil. iVov. Cal. 33, coll. Franc) and by Christ (Bonati exs. 365, coll. Franc).. L. DELTOIDEA C. Chr. Erinitage Stream ; streamside forest ; serpentine ; 300 f't. 809. New Hebrides. L. MCG~LLIVRAYI Carruth. Neknndo ; in Spermolepis forest; serpentine ; 500 ft. 990. My specimens match McGillivray's F. 16 in Herb. Kew. The specimen in Herb. Mus. Brit. is larger and corresponds more closely with Hooker and Baker's description. L. NEOCALEDOXICA Cornp ton, sp. nov. Rhkoma sub solo vigene, elongata horizontalis ramenta brunnea tenuia ferens. Stipes 50 CIII. long. basi teres ramentis paucis instructus superne quadrangulus glabcr, subrubicundus. Frons bipinnata : pinnce siibopposila suhcontiguz patentes inferiores 19 x 4 cm. superiores 11 x 3 -cm. : apex producta, npicem versus sensim angustior dentataque : segmentum terminale pinnulis 14 x 3 cm. instrnctum. Pinnuke con tigua: brevi ter peti olulat ae a dian ti f orni es ova t o-quad rat a: eatcrate virides tenues sed non pollucidae intermediz 15 x 10 mm. intwdnm 18 mm. long., margo posterior rcctus vel paullo recurvatus integer : margo interior J e la crois nouvelle pour I'ile.