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order t? find an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of p-n junction solar energy converters, a limiting effiCiency, called the detailed balance limit of efficiency, has been calculated for an ideal case in which the cmly recombin.ation of hole-electron pairs is radiative as required by the principle of detailed b.alance. The effiCiency IS calculated for the case in which radiative recombination is only a fixed fraction f. of the total recombmation, the rest being nonradiative.doi:10.1063/1.1736034 fatcat:haslcq25sbaoxgvb7kw4jqiucm