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The conducted laboratory tests allowed determination of the efficiency of removing ammonium nitrogen, iron, and manganese in the biofiltration process on chalcedonite beds. The process of water purification was carried out by a single- and two-stage biofiltration method with gravitational and anti-gravitational flow. The study examined the extent to which chemical activation of the bed with potassium manganese (VII) affects the course of the nitrification process and the rate of biofilmdoi:10.3390/app9040751 fatcat:5647j5rjrzeq7nyq5a3etqrwp4