The Idea of the Overman in F. Nietzsche's Philosophy: New Values Beyond Humanity
Идея сверхчеловека в философии Ф. Ницше: новые ценности за гранью человечности

Ellen Martin, University of London
2022 Vestnik SAFU. Serija Gumanitarnye i sotsialnye nauki  
In the light of the contemporary post-humanist discourse and tendency towards rejecting the idea of the subject in Western European philosophy, Nietzsche's concept of the Übermensch (overman) appears to be an integral part of discussions on the anthropological limit and the transformation of human nature. This article considers Nietzsche's main views on the need to reassess moral values during the devaluation of the Christian religion in Europe. The author analyses the concept of the will to
more » ... er, which for Nietzsche is an internal energy, a necessary condition for the formation of new values. This is the essence of life. Through his idea of the overman, Nietzsche highlights the problem of cultural decadence in late 19thcentury Europe. In addition, the paper describes the views of W. Kaufmann, who called Nietzsche a philosopher-surgeon because he stressed the problem of moral degradation of European society. In Nietzsche's philosophy, this ideological position is associated with the rejection of those values that he considered dead, as well as with an attempt to create new value orientations. The analysis of the image of Zarathustra allows us to conclude that the explication of the image of the overman reflects Nietzsche's axiological ideal, which is based on a new understanding of human, established on the value orientations based on egocentrism, nihilism and the idea of will to power as the only condition for becoming. The author demonstrates that the underlying reason for the overman's self-destruction is his belief that the world can exist without God. Idealizing the image of the overman is dangerous, as becoming an overman means overcoming human virtues, when, by crossing the boundaries of good and evil, the subject becomes able to create his/her own value orientations, which are incompatible with human virtues.
doi:10.37482/2687-1505-v229 fatcat:xjxtth2cmjf6ne2xkak5y3gn4u