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AbstractIn Japan, schistosomiasis was endemic in Yamanashi Prefecture and a few other hotspot areas where the Miya'iri snail lived. The parasite's lifecycle relied on the intermediary Miya'iri snail as well as the human host. Parasite eggs passed into the agrarian environment through untreated night soil used as fertiliser or through the culture of open defecation in rural Japan. Manmade rice fields and irrigation ditches, night soil covered paddies and highly refined growing seasons put peopledoi:10.1017/mdh.2022.11 fatcat:6ez224xeezb7hepc545c4wycoq