Cross-Domain Facial Expression Recognition: A Unified Evaluation Benchmark and Adversarial Graph Learning
To address the problem of data inconsistencies among different facial expression recognition (FER) datasets, many cross-domain FER methods (CD-FERs) have been extensively devised in recent years. Although each declares to achieve superior performance, fair comparisons are lacking due to the inconsistent choices of the source/target datasets and feature extractors. In this work, we first analyze the performance effect caused by these inconsistent choices, and then re-implement some
... g CD-FER and recently published domain adaptation algorithms. We ensure that all these algorithms adopt the same source datasets and feature extractors for fair CD-FER evaluations. We find that most of the current leading algorithms use adversarial learning to learn holistic domain-invariant features to mitigate domain shifts. However, these algorithms ignore local features, which are more transferable across different datasets and carry more detailed content for fine-grained adaptation. To address these issues, we integrate graph representation propagation with adversarial learning for cross-domain holistic-local feature co-adaptation by developing a novel adversarial graph representation adaptation (AGRA) framework. Specifically, it first builds two graphs to correlate holistic and local regions within each domain and across different domains, respectively. Then, it extracts holistic-local features from the input image and uses learnable per-class statistical distributions to initialize the corresponding graph nodes. Finally, two stacked graph convolution networks (GCNs) are adopted to propagate holistic-local features within each domain to explore their interaction and across different domains for holistic-local feature co-adaptation. We conduct extensive and fair evaluations on several popular benchmarks and show that the proposed AGRA framework outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.