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Recently, data-driven speech technologies have been widely used to build speech user interfaces. However, developing and managing data-driven spoken dialog systems are laborious and time consuming tasks. Spoken dialog systems have many components and their development and management involves numerous tasks such as preparing the corpus, training, testing and integrating each component for system development and management. In addition, data annotation for natural language understanding anddoi:10.1016/j.specom.2008.04.003 fatcat:tui5tg5rfncyxfv6z63d5wxyka