Gender Differences in Urothelial Bladder Cancer. Effects of Natural Killer Lymphocyte Immunity [post]

Charles T Lutz, Lydia Livas, Steven R. R Presnell, Morgan Sexton, Peng Wang
2021 unpublished
Men are more likely to develop cancer than women. In fact, male predominance is one of the most consistent cancer epidemiology findings. Additionally, men have a poorer prognosis and an increased risk of secondary malignancies compared to women. These differences have been investigated in order to better understand cancer and to better treat both men and women. In this review, we discuss factors that may cause this gender difference, focusing on urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) pathogenesis. We
more » ... ) pathogenesis. We consider physiological factors that may cause higher male cancer rates, including differences in X chromosome gene expression. We discuss how androgens may promote bladder cancer development directly by stimulating bladder urothelium and indirectly by suppressing immunity. We are particularly interested in natural killer (NK) cells because they are important, but often overlooked anti-cancer lymphocytes.
doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0335.v1 fatcat:ispggp5q4jh7lenmfsbqgcj55a