Hesperetin-Loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticles and Nanostructure Lipid Carriers for Food Fortification: Preparation, Characterization, and Modeling
Food and Bioprocess Technology
Solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructure lipid carriers were used to entrap hesperetin and broaden confined knowledge of application of nanocarriers as the functional ingredients in food sectors. The produced nanocarriers using a high mechanical shear method were subjected to size and zeta potential analysis. The developed nanosize carriers had the encapsulation efficiency ranging from 39.90 to 63.08 %. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared
... roscopy were also employed to study thermal behavior, crystalline state, and chemical structure. The release behavior of hesperetin in simulated gastrointestinal conditions was investigated and kinetically modeled. The modeling results indicated that the release phenomenon is mostly governed by combination of Fickian and dissolution mechanisms. Stability of the nanocarriers, as analyzed for up to 30 days, at 6 and 25°C in aqueous suspension, showed no detectable hesperetin leakage. Cryoprotectant effect of different compounds (i.e., glucose, sorbitol, glycerin, lactose, and sucrose) was also examined. Finally, the potential capability of nanocarriers for food fortification was studied using milk as a model food. The fortified milk samples were subjected to sensory analysis and results betokened that the developed nanocarriers did not show any significant difference with blank milk sample and could well mask the bitter taste, after taste, and obviate poor solubility of hesperetin.