Assessment of Minimal Residual Disease by Next Generation Sequencing in Peripheral Blood as a Complementary Tool for Personalized Transplant Monitoring in Myeloid Neoplasms
Journal of Clinical Medicine
Patients with myeloid neoplasms who relapsed after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) have poor prognosis. Monitoring of chimerism and specific molecular markers as a surrogate measure of relapse is not always helpful; therefore, improved systems to detect early relapse are needed. We hypothesized that the use of next generation sequencing (NGS) could be a suitable approach for personalized follow-up post-HSCT. To validate our hypothesis, we analyzed by NGS, a retrospective set
... a retrospective set of peripheral blood (PB) DNA samples previously evaluated by high-sensitive quantitative PCR analysis using insertion/deletion polymorphisms (indel-qPCR) chimerism engraftment. Post-HCST allelic burdens assessed by NGS and chimerism status showed a similar time-course pattern. At time of clinical relapse in 8/12 patients, we detected positive NGS-based minimal residual disease (NGS-MRD). Importantly, in 6/8 patients, we were able to detect NGS-MRD at time points collected prior to clinical relapse. We also confirmed the disappearance of post-HCST allelic burden in non-relapsed patients, indicating true clinical specificity. This study highlights the clinical utility of NGS-based post-HCST monitoring in myeloid neoplasia as a complementary specific analysis to high-sensitive engraftment testing. Overall, NGS-MRD testing in PB is widely applicable for the evaluation of patients following HSCT and highly valuable to personalized early treatment intervention when mixed chimerism is detected.