A Reversible Watermarking Scheme Based on Difference Expansion for Wireless Sensor Networks
International Journal of Grid and Distributed Computing
Wireless sensor networks are self-organized and data-centric. Sensors are typically operated in uncontrolled and possibly hostile environment. Watermark technology has been used for integrity and copyright protection. Some specific application scenarios, such as military, telemedicine and satellite remote sensing, are strict with data integrity and accuracy. They do not allow any change and must be non-destructive data recovery after the requirements of certification. However, previous
... ing-based approaches always make irreversible modifications in the watermarked data. In this paper, we propose a novel reversible watermarking authentication scheme RDE for WSNs, which is based on the difference expansion of a generalized integer transform. Source sensors use a one-way hash function to generate watermark information depending on the adjacent data, and then embed it into these data. After receiving data, the manage node restores the original data and verifies the reliability. The real experiments also demonstrate that our algorithm can losslessly authenticate sensor data with low energy overhead. fragile watermarking algorithm for WSNs. The proposed RDE scheme can verify the sensory data through the embedded watermark bits, and restore the original data completely. It meets the demand of the original data in some specific applications in WSNs with a small amount of additional overhead. What's more, unlike previous algorithms realized in simulation system, our scheme is testified in a real wireless sensor network environment. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an overview of related work. Section 3 provides the detailed description of our proposed method. The experimental results and the performance evaluation are discussed in Section 4. Finally, Section 5 concludes this paper.