Expansion and Diversification of Fluorescent Protein Genes in Fifteen Acropora Species during the Evolution of Acroporid Corals

Rio Kashimoto, Kanako Hisata, Chuya Shinzato, Noriyuki Satoh, Eiichi Shoguchi
2021 Genes  
In addition to a purple, non-fluorescent chromoprotein (ChrP), fluorescent proteins (FPs) account for the vivid colors of corals, which occur in green (GFP), cyan (CFP), and red (RFP) FPs. To understand the evolution of the coral FP gene family, we examined the genomes of 15 Acropora species and three confamilial taxa. This genome-wide survey identified 219 FP genes. Molecular phylogeny revealed that the 15 Acropora species each have 9–18 FP genes, whereas the other acroporids examined have
more » ... s examined have only two, suggesting a pronounced expansion of the FP genes in the genus Acropora. The data estimates of FP gene duplication suggest that the last common ancestor of the Acropora species that survived in the period of high sea surface temperature (Paleogene period) has already gained 16 FP genes. Different evolutionary histories of lineage-specific duplication and loss were discovered among GFP/CFPs, RFPs, and ChrPs. Synteny analysis revealed core GFP/CFP, RFP, and ChrP gene clusters, in which a tandem duplication of the FP genes was evident. The expansion and diversification of Acropora FPs may have contributed to the present-day richness of this genus.
doi:10.3390/genes12030397 pmid:33799612 fatcat:u54rxzho45f45muaf3kaxfv3fy