Supersonic/Hypersonic Laminar Heating Correlations for Rectangular and Impact-Induced Open and Closed Cavities

Joel L. Everhart
2009 Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets  
Impact and debris damage to the Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System tiles is a random phenomenon, occuring at random locations on the vehicle surface, resulting in random geometrical shapes that are exposed to a definable range of surface flow conditions. In response to the 2003 Final Report of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, wind tunnel aeroheating experiments approximating a wide range of possible damage scenarios covering both open and closed cavity flow conditions
more » ... flow conditions were systematically tested in hypersonic ground based facitilies. These data were analyzed and engineering assessment tools for damage-induced fully-laminar heating were developed and exercised on orbit. These tools provide bounding approximations for the damaged-surface heating environment. This paper presents a further analysis of the baseline, zero-pressure-gradient, idealized, rectangular-geometry cavity heating data, yielding new laminar correlations for the floor-averaged heating, peak cavity endwall heating, and the downstream decay rate. Correlation parameters are derived in terms of cavity geometry and local flow conditions. Prediction Limit Uncertainty values are provided at the 95%, 99% and 99.9% levels of significance. Non-baseline conditions, including non-rectangular geometries and flows with known pressure gradients, are used to assess the range of applicability of the new correlations. All data variations fall within the 99% Prediction Limit Uncertainty bounds. Importantly, both open-flow and closed-flow cavity heating are combined into a single-curve parameterization of the heating predictions, and provide a concise mathematical model of the laminar cavity heating flow field with known uncertainty.
doi:10.2514/1.36830 fatcat:rork2a6yl5cn3jmlc3izrut73y