Non-invasive brain stimulation in childhood epilepsy
Journal of International Child Neurology Association
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) are new neurophysiological techniques that allow neurologists and neuroscientists to investigate brain function and neural networks in normal humans as well as in those with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders.In epilepsy, these techniques reveal abnormal excitability of the brain in focal and generalized epilepsy. Different patterns of excitatory and inhibitory changes detected by TMS have the
... by TMS have the potential to be used in the clinic for evaluating patients with epilepsy and to help with diagnosis, monitoring and treatment.Repetitive TMS (rTMS) and tDCS have the ability to modulate cortical excitability over prolonged periods and are being trialled for the treatment of epilepsy. However, further studies are needed to find optimal stimulation paradigms that reliably reduce seizures, and to confirm long term benefits and safety of these interventions.There are fewer TMS and tDCS studies in children and it's not clear if patterns of excitability changes are similar to those seen in adults or if there are unique patterns in childhood epilepsies. Continuing interventional trials assessing safety and efficacy of TMS and tDCS offer hope to children with treatment resistant epilepsies.