Curcumin: A Review of its Potential Role in Epigenetic Mechanism

Mohammad Khan, Tanveer Ahamad, Mohsin Khan, Shahnaaz Khatoon, Alka Kumari
2017 Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research  
tautomeric form (Figure 1b ). This keto-enol form is stable in acidic medium at pH 1-6, but unstable in neutral and basic pH solutions, where they are degraded to ferulic acid and feruloylmethane (Figure 1c ). In acidic and neutral media, the keto form of curcumin dominates and acts as a proton donor, whereas at pH values above 8 the enol form predominates and serves as an electron donor. Curcumin is insoluble in water and diethyl ether whereas it is soluble in dichloromethane, chloroform,
more » ... nol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and acetic acid. 5 In Ayurveda system of medicine in India, turmeric (Curcuma longa) has been prescribed for the treatment of inflammation. The free-radical-scavenging, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, wound healing, anticarcinogenic and neuroprotective effects of turmeric have been attributed to Curcumin. 6 pigenetics is the study of change in the gene expression without any alteration in DNA sequence/genomic content (a change in phenotype without a change in genotype) which lead to activation/inactivation of many genes. An Epigenetic change is a regular and natural occurrence and can also be influenced by several factors including age, the environment or life style but if they occur improperly, there can be major adverse health and behavioural effects. An Epigenetic changes are associated with many processes include methylation, acetylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitylation, and sumolyation. 7 DNA methylation, covalent modifications of histone protein and alteration in microRNA (miRNA) are the changes which could lead to a variety of human disorders such as cancer, neurological and other fatal diseases. 8 DNA methylation mainly affects the transcription while histone modification regulates transcription, repair, replication, or condensation. 9 Evidences on scientific literature showed that plant/herbs/foods are known for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiallergic, antiviral, anticancerous and chemo preventive activities because of their wide availability, low toxicity, and cost effective measures. 9 Natural bioactive compounds extracted as natural products from fruits, vegetables, spices and traditional medicinal herbs can be associated with the regulation and selectively activation/inactivation gene expression without any change in the DNA sequence. Among the natural product compounds, Curcumin has
doi:10.26538/tjnpr/v1i5.3 fatcat:57enpfjinbfffi4p3hwtgma3uy