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This paper reviews automated visual-based defect detection approaches applicable to various materials, such as metals, ceramics and textiles. In the first part of the paper, we present a general taxonomy of the different defects that fall in two classes: visible (e.g., scratches, shape error, etc.) and palpable (e.g., crack, bump, etc.) defects. Then, we describe artificial visual processing techniques that are aimed at understanding of the captured scenery in a mathematical/logical way. Wedoi:10.3390/s20051459 pmid:32155900 fatcat:rsdnszztffbadllniclol3pjvi