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<p>The use of massive open online courses (MOOCs) to expand students' access to higher education has raised questions regarding the extent to which this course model can provide and assess authentic, higher level student learning. In response to this need, MOOC platforms have begun utilizing automated essay scoring (AES) systems that allow students to engage in critical writing and free-response activities. However, there is a lack of research investigating the validity of such systems indoi:10.19173/irrodl.v15i5.1857 fatcat:yxbnl6a5pjgildcdsk4fqcqnpm