Association of Recipient and Donor Interleukin 6 Polymorphisms 174 and 597 With Outcome After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children
Purpose The success of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is compromised by complications such as infection, relapse, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). The investigation of non-HLA immunogenetics, particularly of cytokines, could identify predictors of an unfavorable outcome after allogeneic HSCT. In this study, we examined the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the promotor region of interleukin 6 (IL6) on the development of GVHD after pediatric
... llogeneic HSCT. Methods In this retrospective analysis, we included 320 pediatric patients with a median age of 10 years who underwent an allogeneic HSCT and their respective donors. We used TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction to analyze the SNPs IL6-174 (G/C) and IL6-597 (G/A). The IL6-174 polymorphism was examined in 300 recipients and 295 donors. The IL6-597 polymorphism was analyzed in 299 recipients and 296 donors. We investigated the influence of the IL6-174 and IL6-597 polymorphisms on overall survival, event-free survival, relapse incidence, transplant-related mortality, and the occurrence of GVHD. Results GG polymorphism at position 174 of the recipient IL6 gene was associated with a higher incidence of acute GVHD (GG vs. GC/CC; P = 0.024). Patients with IL6-597 GG genotype developed acute GVHD more frequently than individuals with an A allele (GG vs. GA vs. AA; P = 0.013). IL6-174 GG homozygous recipients had a more frequent occurrence of chronic GVHD (GG vs. GC/CC; P = 0.049). We observed a significant increased risk of chronic GVHD in recipients with IL6-597 GG genotype (GG vs. GA vs. AA; P = 0.043). Polymorphisms of donors did not affect the incidence of acute GVHD and chronic GVHD. In multivariate analysis, the IL6-174 and IL6-597 SNPs were independent significant risk factors for acute GVHD (P = 0.030; P = 0.007, respectively) as well as for chronic GVHD (P = 0.045; P = 0.015, respectively). In addition, older age at time of transplantation turned out to be a significant risk factor for chronic GVHD (P = 0.003). Conclusion Our study identified the IL6-174 and IL6-597 GG genotypes of pediatric allogeneic HSCT recipients as genetic risk factors for the development of acute GVHD and chronic GVHD. After evaluations in further studies, these findings could implicate the adjustment of prophylactic measures to reduce the occurrence of acute GVHD and chronic GVHD.