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To develop a recommender system, the collaborative filtering is the best known approach, which considers the ratings of users who have similar rating profiles or rating patterns. Consistently, it is able to compute the similarity of users when there are enough ratings expressed by users. Therefore, a major challenge of the collaborative filtering approach can be how to make recommendations for a new user, that is called cold-start user problem. To solve this problem, there have been proposed adoi:10.2498/cit.1002223 fatcat:tzrirpnk65bnbbmgaf4vuifubq