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We prove that the magnetic ground state of a single monolayer Fe on W(001) is c2 2 antiferromagnetic, i.e., a checkerboard arrangement of antiparallel magnetic moments. Real space images of this magnetic structure have been obtained with spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy. An out-ofplane easy magnetization axis is concluded from measurements in an external magnetic field. The magnetic ground state and anisotropy axis are explained based on first-principles calculations.doi:10.1103/physrevlett.94.087204 pmid:15783926 fatcat:nad4em6xlraanb67i4topoyxvy