Bowman-Birk Protease Inhibitor from Vigna unguiculata Seeds Enhances the Action of Bradykinin-Related Peptides

Alice Álvares, Elisabeth Schwartz, Nathalia Amaral, Neidiane Trindade, Gustavo Pedrino, Luciano Silva, Sonia de Freitas
2014 Molecules  
The hydrolysis of bradykinin (Bk) by different classes of proteases in plasma and tissues leads to a decrease in its half-life. Here, Bk actions on smooth muscle and in vivo cardiovascular assays in association with a protease inhibitor, Black eyed-pea trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) and also under the effect of trypsin and chymotrypsin were evaluated. Two synthetic Bk-related peptides, Bk1 and Bk2, were used to investigate the importance of additional C-terminal amino acid residues
more » ... serine protease activity. BTCI forms complexes with Bk and analogues at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0, presenting binding OPEN ACCESS Molecules 2014, 19 17537 constants ranging from 10 3 to 10 4 M −1 . Formation of BTCI-Bk complexes is probably driven by hydrophobic forces, coupled with slight conformational changes in BTCI. In vitro assays using guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) ileum showed that Bk retains the ability to induce smooth muscle contraction in the presence of BTCI. Moreover, no alteration in the inhibitory activity of BTCI in complex with Bk and analogous was observed. When the BTCI and BTCI-Bk complexes were tested in vivo, a decrease of vascular resistance and consequent hypotension and potentiating renal and aortic vasodilatation induced by Bk and Bk2 infusions was observed. These results indicate that BTCI-Bk complexes may be a reliable strategy to act as a carrier and protective approach for Bk-related peptides against plasma serine proteases cleavage, leading to an increase in their half-life. These findings also indicate that BTCI could remain stable in some tissues to inhibit chymotrypsin or trypsin-like enzymes that cleave and inactivate bradykinin in situ.
doi:10.3390/molecules191117536 pmid:25361421 fatcat:ymfkjuo3vrdjhfodvnwaq3i5me