Time-dependent chemo-electro-mechanical behavior of hydrogel-based structures
Behavior and Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Composites XII
Charged hydrogels are ionic polymer gels and belong to the class of smart materials. These gels are multiphasic materials which consist of a solid phase, a fluid phase and an ionic phase. Due to the presence of bound charges these materials are stimuli-responsive to electrical or chemical loads. The application of electrical or chemical stimuli as well as mechanical loads lead to a viscoelastic response. On the macroscopic scale, the response is governed by a local reversible release or
... release or absorption of water which, in turn, leads to a local decrease or increase of mass and a respective volume change. Furthermore, the chemo-electro-mechanical equilibrium of a hydrogel depends on the chemical composition of the gel and the surrounding solution bath. Due to the presence of bound charges in the hydrogel, this system can be understood as an osmotic cell where differences in the concentration of mobile ions in the gel and solution domain lead to an osmotic pressure difference. In the present work, a continuum-based numerical model is presented in order to describe the time-dependent swelling behavior of hydrogels. The numerical model is based on the Theory of Porous Media and captures the fluid-solid, fluid-ion and ion-ion interactions. As a direct consequence of the chemo-electro-mechanical equilibrium, the corresponding boundary conditions are defined following the equilibrium conditions. For the interaction of the hydrogel with surrounding mechanical structures, also respective jump condtions are formulated. Finaly, numerical results of the time-dependent behavior of a hydrogel-based chemo-sensor will be presented.