Universal Assumptions of Aristotle's Methodology Related to Nature
Biomedical Journal of Scientific & Technical Research
In the ancient Greek culture and philosophy statements about the world had cosmological and cosmogonic character. The first were totally (like, for example, in Thales', Anaximander's, Heraclitus' philosophy) or partially connected with inductive assumptions (e.g. in Pythagoreans', Plato's or Aristotle's statements). On the other hand, the second had always metaphysical (that is, mythical) nature of religious (like in Orphism), quasi-religious (like in Pythagoreanism) or secular (like in views
... ar (like in views of Plato -in spite of the fact that he referred to religious myths -as well as in Aristotle's and Epicurus' works) character. In Aristotle's statements about the empirically perceptible world (the cosmos) there are two main methodological currentsthe inductive (empirical) one and the empirical one -concerning the following findings: a) Those of ideographic (descriptive, based also on induction, on inductive reasoning) character, b) Those interpreting sense, essence, principles and reasons in an intuitive way. The first two kinds of findings inspired and made it possible to formulate. c) Intuitive statements of nomotetic character -that is, those explaining construction and functioning of the universe and taking the form of deductive syllogisms. That is the sequence which comes from Aristotle's considerations included in "Metaphysics". The precondition for proper description and explanation of existence and functioning of the cosmos is understanding that the foundations of the universe are constituted by a supernatural being in the form of the necessary Unmoved, Prime, Eternal Mover or the First Cause, the divine Reason and God, who is a living, continuous and the optimal being, a very self-existent act (1071a-1073a). Thus, the pivotal aim of the first science (that is, the first philosophy); of philosophical theory or, in other words, the philosophy of the universe (cosmos); of theological astronomy or of astrophysical philosophy -which simultaneously constitutes a specification of the philosophy of nature and an exposition of a significant part of Aristotle's philosophy of myth -is the proper formulation and groundwork of the ideal (divine) foundation of metaphysics of the universe. The abovementioned methodological currents can be described as: a) The metaphysical one; that is -in that case -the intuitive one, which has mythical (or, if interpreted more broadly, mythological) character, which constitutes the foundation of the deductive syllogism -that is, deductive reasoning; b) The inductive one, based on external experience -that is, on extraspection and the inductive syllogism. The discussed currents constitute together methodological assumptions of universal or just global character. They refer both to the ancient Greek as well as to the contemporary philosophy of the universe. At first Aristotle proclaims, on the basis of induction that is, the inductive syllogism -that the cosmos exists and then he explains in an intuitive, metaphysical and mythical way (that is, on the basis of the deductive syllogism) -how existence and functioning of the universe is possible. He creates a significant, very deep and noteworthy philosophy of myth. God appears in it as a being who is immanent in its relation towards the world and transfers to it its power, divinity, immortality, eternity, constant and incessant movement and life in a hylozoist meaning. The Stagirite emphasizes that nature -which exists eternally -is totally divinized and theized (from θεός -god), because it is all saturated with incessantly eternal divinity, God's qualities and abilities. Thus, its essence is divine and hence there exist permanent sacralization, divinization and theization of substances and things of non-confessional, secularly metaphysical character.