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Seed Predation, Seedling Emergence, and Rhizome Characteristics of American Licorice
Journal of range management
American licorice (Glycyrrhisa Iepidota Pursh) is a widespread native legume that may have potential forage or soil conservation uses. Seed predation, seedling emergence, and rhizome production were studied in 41 populations of G. lepidota from North and South Dakota. Seed predation by the beetle Acanthoscelides fraterculus (Horn) reduced viable seed production by 7 to 71%. Seedling emergence in the greenhouse and stand establishment in the field varied considerably among populations. Overalldoi:10.2307/3899707 fatcat:b4dira4byzhpjbi53tfgva4eli