Nanofiltration for safe drinking water in underdeveloped regions – a feasibility study
The fact from the United Nations that in 2015, about 663 million people worldwide did not have access to an improved drinking water source, does not resemble the reality wherein more than 1.8 billion people worldwide were consuming water which is unsafe for drinking. Nanofiltration, with the ability to reject several trace organic compounds, heavy metals and viruses at a lower energy demand than reverse osmosis, has found application for the production of high quality drinking water in
... g water in developed nations. This study briefly reviewed the efficacy of nanofiltration for drinking water production considering various types of pollutants. Series of experiments were conducted using a pilot-scale nanofiltration unit, to assess the potential for drinking water production, from ground water, in a developing country like Ghana and to estimate the associated costs. The economic feasibility of a micro-enterprise (relying on nanofiltration) was evaluated for tackling the economic water scarcity in a rural area. The concept of micro-enterprise based on a pilot-scale nanofiltration system was found to be suitable for producing adequate quantity of safe drinking water (at a reasonable cost of less than €0.01 per litre) for a village in a developing country. Offering safe and economic drinking water with a possibility for small margins and employment opportunities aiming for poverty alleviation, its operation was found to be economical and sustainable.