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Double-stranded small RNAs (dsRNA) perform various regulatory functions via RNA-interference. Additionally, they can be transported between various plant species and their pathogens and pests via extracellular vesicles, protecting RNA from nucleases. Plants secrete short dsRNA molecules to defend themselves against pathogens. The latter also use small RNAs when infecting crops. Some dsRNAs of pathogens are known as ribonucleic effectors. Host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) was shown to bedoi:10.17816/ecogen35203 fatcat:lirpnajkvfh7jp6bamw243qdoy