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Confined plunging jets are investigated as potential outfalls for the discharge of desalination brine. Compared to offshore submerged outfalls that rely on momentum to induce mixing, plunging jets released above the water surface utilize both momentum and negative buoyancy. Plunging jets also introduce air into the water column, which can reduce the possibility of hypoxic zones. In contrast to unconfined plunging jets, confined plunging jets include a confining tube, or downcomer, around thedoi:10.3390/pr9050856 fatcat:l4fn2vw5jfdezjray5nauvkup4