DETECTION OF URINARY TRACT ANOMALIES USING ULTRASONOGRAPHY DURING ANTENATAL SCREENING
INTRODUCTION Urinary tract anomaly is very common in occurrence, with the rate of 1.08 %, i.e. approximately 1 urinary tract anomaly is encountered in every 100 antenatal patients scanned. A systematic approach to the prenatal diagnosis of urinary tract abnormalities includes assessment of amniotic fluid volume, localization and characterization of urinary tract abnormalities, assessment of fetal gender, ABSTRACT Background & Aim: To study the pattern and prevalence of urinary tract anomalies,
... y tract anomalies, which can be diagnosed by USG during the antenatal period and to look for any associated anomaly. Material & Method: This study was carried out on a total of 1750 patients in SSG Hospital Vadodara. All the patients had come for their routine antenatal screening. All USGs were done using curvilinear low frequency (3-5 MHz) transducers. Results: Out of the 1750 patients studied over a period of 8 months, 19 patients were found to be having urinary tract anomalies. The prevalence of urinary tract anomaly in our study was 10.86 per 1000 fetuses (1.08%). In our study of the 19 fetuses with urinary tract anomalies, 2 had unilateral absent kidney, 2 fetuses were of Cystic renal dysplasia, 2 had ectopic kidneys and 1 patient, each of PUJ obstruction, vesicoureteric reflux, megaureter and posterior urethral valve giving the typical key hole appearance of the bladder. There were 2 fetuses with bilateral absent kidneys, oligohydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia (Potter's sequence) which had to be terminated. Associated anomalies detected were of prune belly syndrome in association with megaureter. There were 2 fetuses with bilateral echogenic kidneys associated with absent radius. A fetus with bilateral cystic renal dysplasia also had associated hemi-vertebra and pulmonary hypoplasia. In our study, 26 % of the patients reflected changes in liquor be it oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios and 21 % of the patients had to be terminated prematurely as the anomalies wouldn't have sustained in the late gestation. Conclusion: Urinary tract anomalies can be precisely diagnosed and classified in the antenatal period using ultrasonography imaging and it can be helpful in planning immediate postnatal care.