DETECTION OF URINARY TRACT ANOMALIES USING ULTRASONOGRAPHY DURING ANTENATAL SCREENING

Vishva Chauhan, Chetan Mehta, Harshad Wankhade, Dhruti Maisuri, Ayaz Dabiwala, Year Resident, Head, Year Resident, Year Resident, Vishva Chauhan
unpublished
INTRODUCTION Urinary tract anomaly is very common in occurrence, with the rate of 1.08 %, i.e. approximately 1 urinary tract anomaly is encountered in every 100 antenatal patients scanned. A systematic approach to the prenatal diagnosis of urinary tract abnormalities includes assessment of amniotic fluid volume, localization and characterization of urinary tract abnormalities, assessment of fetal gender, ABSTRACT Background & Aim: To study the pattern and prevalence of urinary tract anomalies,
more » ... y tract anomalies, which can be diagnosed by USG during the antenatal period and to look for any associated anomaly. Material & Method: This study was carried out on a total of 1750 patients in SSG Hospital Vadodara. All the patients had come for their routine antenatal screening. All USGs were done using curvilinear low frequency (3-5 MHz) transducers. Results: Out of the 1750 patients studied over a period of 8 months, 19 patients were found to be having urinary tract anomalies. The prevalence of urinary tract anomaly in our study was 10.86 per 1000 fetuses (1.08%). In our study of the 19 fetuses with urinary tract anomalies, 2 had unilateral absent kidney, 2 fetuses were of Cystic renal dysplasia, 2 had ectopic kidneys and 1 patient, each of PUJ obstruction, vesicoureteric reflux, megaureter and posterior urethral valve giving the typical key hole appearance of the bladder. There were 2 fetuses with bilateral absent kidneys, oligohydramnios and pulmonary hypoplasia (Potter's sequence) which had to be terminated. Associated anomalies detected were of prune belly syndrome in association with megaureter. There were 2 fetuses with bilateral echogenic kidneys associated with absent radius. A fetus with bilateral cystic renal dysplasia also had associated hemi-vertebra and pulmonary hypoplasia. In our study, 26 % of the patients reflected changes in liquor be it oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios and 21 % of the patients had to be terminated prematurely as the anomalies wouldn't have sustained in the late gestation. Conclusion: Urinary tract anomalies can be precisely diagnosed and classified in the antenatal period using ultrasonography imaging and it can be helpful in planning immediate postnatal care.
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