Polyomaviruses-associated respiratory infections in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children
Journal of Clinical Virology
Two recently discovered polyomaviruses (PyV), WU and KI, have been identified in respiratory-tract specimens from children with acute respiratory infections, although there are limited data in HIV-infected children. To determine the prevalence and clinical manifestations of WUPyV and KIPyV-associated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) hospitalization in HIV-infected and -uninfected children; and probe the role of pneumococcal co-infection. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from a
... ohort of 39,836 children randomized to receive 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV9) or placebo when hospitalized for LRTIs, and were screened by PCR for WUPyV, KIPyV and other respiratory viruses. In placebo-recipients the prevalence of WUPyV was 6.3% (18/285) in HIV-infected and 13.9% (66/476) in HIV-uninfected children (p=0.002). In WUPyV-positive LRTIs HIV-infected children had lower oxygen saturation at admission and a higher case fatality rate (11.1% vs. 0%; p=0.04). KIPyV was identified in 10.2% (29/285) of HIV-infected and in 7.4% (35/476) of HIV-uninfected placebo-recipients with LRTIs (p=0.13). HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected children with KIPyV-positive LRTIs had lower oxygen saturation, higher respiratory rate and longer duration of hospitalization. Co-infections with other respiratory-viruses were detected in 65.5% of WUPyV-positive LRTIs and in 75.0% of KIPyV-positive LRTIs. Among HIV-uninfected children, there was a lower incidence of hospitalization for clinical pneumonia episodes in which KIPyV (80%; 95% CI: 41, 93) and WUPyV (49%; 95% CI: 9, 71) were identified among PCV9-recipients compared to placebo-recipients. Polyomaviruses were commonly identified in HIV-infected and -uninfected children hospitalized for LRTIs, frequently in association with other viruses and may contribute to the pathogenesis of pneumococcal pneumonia.