Lipoprotein(a) and Cardiovascular Diseases ― Revisited ―

Albert Youngwoo Jang, Seung Hwan Han, Il Suk Sohn, Pyung Chun Oh, Kwang Kon Koh
2020 Circulation Journal  
Two decades ago, it was recognized that lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) concentrations were elevated in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the importance of Lp(a) was not strongly established due to a lack of both Lp(a)-lowering therapy and evidence that reducing Lp(a) levels improves CVD risk. Recent advances in clinical and genetic research have revealed the crucial role of Lp(a) in the pathogenesis of CVD. Mendelian randomization studies have shown that Lp(a) concentrations are
more » ... entrations are causal for different CVDs, including coronary artery disease, calcified aortic valve disease, stroke, and heart failure, despite optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) management. Lp(a) consists of apolipoprotein (apo) B100 covalently bound to apoA. Thus, Lp(a) has atherothrombotic traits of both apoB (from LDL) and apoA (thrombo-inflammatory aspects). Although conventional pharmacological therapies, such as statin, niacin, and cholesteryl ester transfer protein, have failed to significantly reduce Lp(a) levels, emerging new therapeutic strategies using proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitors or antisesnse oligonucleotide technology have shown promising results in effectively lowering Lp(a). In this review we discuss the revisited important role of L(a) and strategies to overcome residual risk in the statin era.
doi:10.1253/circj.cj-20-0051 pmid:32336721 fatcat:qpkvcp6jafckzeu6njt27ix7zq