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Recently, the so-called "plant factory with artificial lighting" (PFAL) approach has been developed to provide safe and steady food production. Although PFALs can produce high-yielding and high-quality plants, the high plant density in these systems accelerates leaf senescence in the bottom (or outer) leaves owing to shading by the upper (or inner) leaves and by neighboring plants. This decreases yield and increases labor costs for trimming. Thus, the establishment of cultivation methods todoi:10.3389/fpls.2015.01110 pmid:26697055 pmcid:PMC4677251 fatcat:5ub7byssofgabfxdv4xkizftqq