Advanced Control of Thermostatic Loads for Rapid Frequency Response in Great Britain
IEEE Transactions on Power Systems
In the Great Britain power system, reduced system inertia (particularly during low demand conditions) and larger possible infeed loss would make grid frequency regulation extremely challenging in future. Traditional primary frequency response could be insufficient to limit the frequency variation within acceptable range. This paper shows that thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) (domestic refrigerators) can be controlled without real-time communication and in a non-disruptive way to
... tive way to collectively enhance the network frequency response. The aggregated power consumption of TCLs, distributed across the system, could be controlled as a 'linear' function of the locally measured frequency and its rate of change. Alternatively, their aggregated consumption could be made to follow a 'pre-set' power profile depending on the estimated infeed loss. A novel technique for accurate estimation of infeed loss and consequent post-fault TCL power reduction is also proposed. The effectiveness of the two TCL control strategies are compared for primary and secondary frequency response through a case study on a 36 busbar reduced equivalent of the Great Britain power system. The effect of spatial variation of transient frequencies and the time delays in frequency measurement and filtering are considered to show how the TCLs can realistically provide rapid frequency response.